The Suspension infoPlaylist is a hyperlinked bibliography with resources and readings to guide additional learning about school discipline, disparities, the school-to-prison pipeline, early childhood suspension, poverty, and alternatives to suspension.
A collaboration between Towson University, Wide Angle Youth Media, and CIUE. Created by students at Towson University in Tara Bynum’s Hip Hop to Barack Class: Taylor Kvilhaug, Gabriel Perez, Amanda Shorr, Jarka Alam, Jennifer Russo, Alexandra Chin, Chelsea Oliver, Elizabeth Barry, Sarah Fossaceca, Pratibha Gurung, Jessica Reese
Introduction to School Discipline:
- “Five Things to Know About School Discipline.” Child Trends: Lists five important key ideas related to school disciplinary actions. Includes in-text links to more information on school disciplinary actions and their effects on students’ motivation to improve behavior.
- “Compendium of School Discipline Laws and Regulations, Categories & Definitions.” US Department of Education: Lists the different categories and definitions of the Compendium of School Discipline Laws and Regulations.
- “Compendium of School Discipline Laws and Regulations for the 50 States, Washington, D.C. and the U.S. Territories.” US Department of Education: Provides the school discipline laws and regulations for the 50 states, Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico. The document is divided into sections by state and territory.
- “Disproportionality in school discipline: An assessment of trends in Maryland, 2009–12.” US Department of Education.
- “Racial Disproportionality in School Discipline: Implicit Bias is Heavily Implicated, an assessment.” Kirwan Institute Issue Brief.
- “Racial Disproportionality in School Discipline Practices.” National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems.
- “Educational Rights for Children with ADHD in Public Schools (WWK4).” National Resource Center on ADHD.
- “Principal Attitudes Regarding Zero Tolerance and Racial Disparities in School Suspension.” Curry School of Education, University of Virginia: Explores racial disparities related to suspension, analyzing not just the number of students suspended, but reasons for suspension and the zero-tolerance disciplinary system driving suspensions.
- “National report highlights racial disparities in suspensions.”
- “Discipline Disparities Series – Briefing Papers.” Indiana University: Discusses and presents the findings of research done by the Discipline Disparities Research-To-Practice Collaborative.
- “Eliminating Disparities in School Discipline–Evidence Blast.” The Discipline Disparities Research-to-Practice Collaborative: This article is about racial disparities related to discipline and suspensions in schools in the Northwest and, how to possibly solve these problems not only there but all across the country.“Out of School and Off Track Policy to Address Disparate Impact and Racial Bias in Discipline.” The Center for Civil Rights Remedies at The Civil Rights Project at UCLA: Demonstrates research done on racial disparities across the country, possible solutions, and successful school systems from across the nation where the disparities are far less prominent.
- “Suspension, Race, and Disability: Analysis of Statewide Practices and Reporting.” Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Analysis of statewide suspension data from 1995 to 2003 in Maryland investigated disproportionate suspensions of minority students and students with disabilities.
- “Misbehavior, Suspensions, and Security Measures in High School: Racial/Ethnic and Gender Differences.” The Civil Rights Project at UCLA.
- “Researchers Point to Racial Disparities in School Suspension, Spotlight New Practices.” Washington Post.
- “Suspended Education.” Southern Poverty Law Center.
- “The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality.” The Urban Review.
- “Are Black Kids Worse? Myths and Facts about Racial Differences in Behavior.” Indiana.edu.
- “Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in School Discipline among U.S. High School Students: 1991-2005.” The Negro Educational Review.
Effects of School Discipline:
- “Discipline: Effective School Practices.” National Association of School Psychologists. Opportunities Suspended: The Devastating Consequences of Zero Tolerance and School Discipline, Report from a National Summit on Zero Tolerance, The Advancement Project & Harvard University The Civil Rights Project: Lists the effects of different school punishment methods and behavioral consequences for children who are repeatedly disciplined.
- “Discipline and Participation: The Long-Term Effects of Suspension and School Security on the Political and Civic Engagement of Youth.” The Civil Rights Project at UCLA.
- “The School-to-Prison Pipeline: Time to Shut It Down.” National Education Association. “Out of Detention: How to Stop the School-to-Prison Pipeline.” Harvard Politics.
- “Keeping Young People Out of Prison and in the Classroom.” American Institutes for Research.
- “Next Steps: Improving Educational Outcomes for System-Involved Students in Philadelphia.” Education Law Center: Uses the 2014 report on Philadelphia school children involved with the child welfare or juvenile justice system to create a set of recommendations that center around legislative change and reform of the education system.
- “Obama Wants to Stop ‘school-to-prison Pipeline’ for Minorities.” Los Angeles Times: Reports on Obama’s “My Brother’s Keeper” Initiative.
- “The School-to-Prison Pipeline.” Teaching Tolerance: Gives six suggestions on how to avoid feeding students into the school-to-prison pipeline.
- “Stop the School-to-Prison Pipeline.” Rethinking Schools.
Early Childhood Suspension:
- “The Preschool to Prison Pipeline Must Stop.” Patheos: Explains the causes of preschool suspensions, criticizes zero-tolerance policies, and offers solutions to improve school policies.
- “Black Preschoolers Far More Likely To Be Suspended.” NPR.
- “The School-To-Prison Pipeline Can Start Even Before Kindergarten, Mother Points Out.” The Huffington Post.
- “Time To Reroute the Preschool-to-Prison Pipeline.” Phoenix House.
- “Pre-K Suspension Data Prompt Focus on Intervention.” Education Week: Analyzes the issues behind preschool discipline and suspension, as well as the correlations between suspension rate, class size, and the student population.
- “The School-to-Prison Pipeline Starts in Preschool.” The Nation.
- “My Son Has Been Suspended Five Times. He’s 3.” Washington Post.
- “Suspensions and Expulsions in Preschool.” The Hill.
- “Poverty and Its Impact on Education: Today and Tomorrow.” The NEA Higher Education Journal.
- “Capitol Hill Roundtable: Interrupt the ‘Poverty-to-Prison Pipeline’”. Juvenile Justice Information Exchange.
- “Teaching with Poverty in Mind.” ASCD.
- “Speaking Out: The Poverty to Prison Paradigm.” National Association of Elementary School Principals.
- “Philadelphia’s Workers and Oppressed Denied Education, Jobs.” Workers World.
- “Statistics on How Poverty Affects Children in Schools.” Seattle Pi.
- “Children at Risk.” Southern Poverty Law Center: Discusses correlation between race, poverty, school discipline practices, & incarceration.
- “Prison and the Poverty Trap.” The New York Times.
Alternatives to Suspension:
- “Creating Community Service Opportunities for Suspended and Expelled Youth: A Final Report on Virginia’s Experience.” Virginia Department of Education: Outlines a Virginia Department of Education program that created community service opportunities for suspended and expelled youth.
- “The Value of Mentoring.”
- “Alternative Education Program.” Specialized Education Services Incorporated.
- “Behavior Contracts.” PBIS World.
- “Counseling.” The American School Counselor Association: Provides an overview of the national counseling model, advice for school counseling and information on training opportunities in school counseling.
- “Three Types of Logical Consequences.” Responsive Classroom.